SIMULASI UTBK SOSHUM – GEOGRAFI

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SIMULASI UTBK TPS PENGETAHUAN DAN PEMAHAMAN UMUM

SIMULASI UTBK 2021 JILC - TPS PENGETAHUAN DAN PEMAHAMAN UMUM - BHS INGGRIS

1 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage One

Everyone likes to group things. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanists classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologists classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.

 

Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.

 

The examples provided in paragraph 2 clarify that ... .

 

2 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage One

Everyone likes to group things. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanists classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologists classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.

 

Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.

 

Paragraph 2 exemplifies the idea about classification that ... .

 

 

3 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage One

Everyone likes to group things. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanists classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologists classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.

 

Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.

 

The sentences “Chemist are no exception” (paragraph 2 line 1) could possibly be restated as ... .

 

 

4 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage One

Everyone likes to group things. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanists classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologists classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.

 

Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.

 

The paragraph following the passage most likely deals with the classification of ...

5 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage One

Everyone likes to group things. Language students group word as verbs, nouns and so on; collections of words are classified as phrases, or clauses, or sentences, and these again are reclassified according to their function. In the same way, botanists classify plants as algae, or fungi, or gymnosperms, etc. Zoologists classify animals as vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrates can be further classified as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, etc. Classification enables us to keep hold of more information and, if it is based on the right data, enables us to understand better the ideas we are studying.

 

Chemists are no exception. The chemical classification of materials, if it is based on a good system, should enable us to understand better the many substances which exist in our word. What is to be the basis of our classification? Perhaps the most obvious one is appearance. Materials could be classified as solid, liquid or gas with some mixed types as, for example, mud being solid/liquid material and steam a liquid/gas material. Appearance could enable us to subdivide our main classification groups a little further; the solid may be green, or black, powdery or crystalline; the liquid may be colored, oily, thick, or free flowing; the gas may be colored. However, we soon realize that many probably quite different materials have the same appearance. Both air and the deadly carbon-monoxide gas, are colorless, odorless gases, but we would not like to group them as the same thing. Many different liquids are colorless, water-like materials.

 

How does the author organize the ideas?

 

6 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Two

To be good consumers it is necessary for us to understand why prices and productions of goods are always changing. The following information is a simple law to help us understand it. When prices are low people will buy more, and when prices are high they will buy less. Everyone knows this. But at the same time, producers want higher prices for their goods when they make more goods. How can we find the best price for the goods? The law of Supply and Demand is the answer of this questions.

 

According to this law, changes in the price of goods cause changes in supply and demand. An increase in the price of goods causes an increase in supply – the number of goods that producers make. Producers will make more goods when they can have higher prices for the goods. At the same time, an increase in the price of the goods causes a decrease in demand – the number of goods the consumers buy. This is because people buy less when the price is high. Conversely, a decrease in price causes an increase in demand and a decrease in supply.

 

Business firms look at both supply and demand when they make decisions about prices and production. They look for the equilibrium point where supply equals demand. The equilibrium point is a point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. At this point, the number of goods produced will all be bought by the consumers at the certain price. This is called the equilibrium price. If the producers increase the price, or if they produce more, the consumers will not buy all of the goods. The producers will have a surplus - more supply than demand – so they must decrease the price in order to sell all of the goods. On the other hand, if they make fewer goods, they will be a shortage – more demand than supply – and the price will go up.

 

 

According to the Law of Supply and Demand, the equilibrium price is the best price for the goods. The consumers and the producers will agree on this price because it is the only price that helps them both equally.

 

Why does an increase in prices cause an increase in supply?

 

7 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Two

To be good consumers it is necessary for us to understand why prices and productions of goods are always changing. The following information is a simple law to help us understand it. When prices are low people will buy more, and when prices are high they will buy less. Everyone knows this. But at the same time, producers want higher prices for their goods when they make more goods. How can we find the best price for the goods? The law of Supply and Demand is the answer of this questions.

 

According to this law, changes in the price of goods cause changes in supply and demand. An increase in the price of goods causes an increase in supply – the number of goods that producers make. Producers will make more goods when they can have higher prices for the goods. At the same time, an increase in the price of the goods causes a decrease in demand – the number of goods the consumers buy. This is because people buy less when the price is high. Conversely, a decrease in price causes an increase in demand and a decrease in supply.

 

Business firms look at both supply and demand when they make decisions about prices and production. They look for the equilibrium point where supply equals demand. The equilibrium point is a point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. At this point, the number of goods produced will all be bought by the consumers at the certain price. This is called the equilibrium price. If the producers increase the price, or if they produce more, the consumers will not buy all of the goods. The producers will have a surplus - more supply than demand – so they must decrease the price in order to sell all of the goods. On the other hand, if they make fewer goods, they will be a shortage – more demand than supply – and the price will go up.

 

According to the Law of Supply and Demand, the equilibrium price is the best price for the goods. The consumers and the producers will agree on this price because it is the only price that helps them both equally.

 

Why does a decrease in prices cause an increase in demand?

 

 

8 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Two

To be good consumers it is necessary for us to understand why prices and productions of goods are always changing. The following information is a simple law to help us understand it. When prices are low people will buy more, and when prices are high they will buy less. Everyone knows this. But at the same time, producers want higher prices for their goods when they make more goods. How can we find the best price for the goods? The law of Supply and Demand is the answer of this questions.

 

According to this law, changes in the price of goods cause changes in supply and demand. An increase in the price of goods causes an increase in supply – the number of goods that producers make. Producers will make more goods when they can have higher prices for the goods. At the same time, an increase in the price of the goods causes a decrease in demand – the number of goods the consumers buy. This is because people buy less when the price is high. Conversely, a decrease in price causes an increase in demand and a decrease in supply.

 

Business firms look at both supply and demand when they make decisions about prices and production. They look for the equilibrium point where supply equals demand. The equilibrium point is a point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. At this point, the number of goods produced will all be bought by the consumers at the certain price. This is called the equilibrium price. If the producers increase the price, or if they produce more, the consumers will not buy all of the goods. The producers will have a surplus - more supply than demand – so they must decrease the price in order to sell all of the goods. On the other hand, if they make fewer goods, they will be a shortage – more demand than supply – and the price will go up.

 

According to the Law of Supply and Demand, the equilibrium price is the best price for the goods. The consumers and the producers will agree on this price because it is the only price that helps them both equally.

 

What do a business firms look at when they make decisions about prices and production?

 

9 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Two

To be good consumers it is necessary for us to understand why prices and productions of goods are always changing. The following information is a simple law to help us understand it. When prices are low people will buy more, and when prices are high they will buy less. Everyone knows this. But at the same time, producers want higher prices for their goods when they make more goods. How can we find the best price for the goods? The law of Supply and Demand is the answer of this questions.

 

According to this law, changes in the price of goods cause changes in supply and demand. An increase in the price of goods causes an increase in supply – the number of goods that producers make. Producers will make more goods when they can have higher prices for the goods. At the same time, an increase in the price of the goods causes a decrease in demand – the number of goods the consumers buy. This is because people buy less when the price is high. Conversely, a decrease in price causes an increase in demand and a decrease in supply.

 

Business firms look at both supply and demand when they make decisions about prices and production. They look for the equilibrium point where supply equals demand. The equilibrium point is a point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. At this point, the number of goods produced will all be bought by the consumers at the certain price. This is called the equilibrium price. If the producers increase the price, or if they produce more, the consumers will not buy all of the goods. The producers will have a surplus - more supply than demand – so they must decrease the price in order to sell all of the goods. On the other hand, if they make fewer goods, they will be a shortage – more demand than supply – and the price will go up.

 

According to the Law of Supply and Demand, the equilibrium price is the best price for the goods. The consumers and the producers will agree on this price because it is the only price that helps them both equally.

 

Why will consumers and producers agree on the equilibrium price?

 

10 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Two

To be good consumers it is necessary for us to understand why prices and productions of goods are always changing. The following information is a simple law to help us understand it. When prices are low people will buy more, and when prices are high they will buy less. Everyone knows this. But at the same time, producers want higher prices for their goods when they make more goods. How can we find the best price for the goods? The law of Supply and Demand is the answer of this questions.

 

According to this law, changes in the price of goods cause changes in supply and demand. An increase in the price of goods causes an increase in supply – the number of goods that producers make. Producers will make more goods when they can have higher prices for the goods. At the same time, an increase in the price of the goods causes a decrease in demand – the number of goods the consumers buy. This is because people buy less when the price is high. Conversely, a decrease in price causes an increase in demand and a decrease in supply.

 

Business firms look at both supply and demand when they make decisions about prices and production. They look for the equilibrium point where supply equals demand. The equilibrium point is a point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersect. At this point, the number of goods produced will all be bought by the consumers at the certain price. This is called the equilibrium price. If the producers increase the price, or if they produce more, the consumers will not buy all of the goods. The producers will have a surplus - more supply than demand – so they must decrease the price in order to sell all of the goods. On the other hand, if they make fewer goods, they will be a shortage – more demand than supply – and the price will go up.

 

According to the Law of Supply and Demand, the equilibrium price is the best price for the goods. The consumers and the producers will agree on this price because it is the only price that helps them both equally.

 

When will the producers have a surplus of goods?

 

11 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Three

The sharing economy is an emerging economic model. It consists of peer-to-peer (P2P) based activities of acquiring, providing, or sharing access to goods and services. It is often facilitated by a community-based online platform. Communities of people have shared the use of assets for thousands of years. However, the advent of the Internet and its use of big data has made it easier for asset owners to find people who want to use those assets. It also applies vice versa. Sharing economies allow individuals and groups to make money from underused assets. In a sharing economy, idle assets such as parked cars and spare bedroom can be rented out when not in use. In this way, physical assets are shared as services.

 

The underlined word ‘idle’ in the passage means ….

 

12 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Three

The sharing economy is an emerging economic model. It consists of peer-to-peer (P2P) based activities of acquiring, providing, or sharing access to goods and services. It is often facilitated by a community-based online platform. Communities of people have shared the use of assets for thousands of years. However, the advent of the Internet and its use of big data has made it easier for asset owners to find people who want to use those assets. It also applies vice versa. Sharing economies allow individuals and groups to make money from underused assets. In a sharing economy, idle assets such as parked cars and spare bedroom can be rented out when not in use. In this way, physical assets are shared as services.

 

The underlined word ‘can’ in the passage is used to express ….

 

 

13 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Three

The sharing economy is an emerging economic model. It consists of peer-to-peer (P2P) based activities of acquiring, providing, or sharing access to goods and services. It is often facilitated by a community-based online platform. Communities of people have shared the use of assets for thousands of years. However, the advent of the Internet and its use of big data has made it easier for asset owners to find people who want to use those assets. It also applies vice versa. Sharing economies allow individuals and groups to make money from underused assets. In a sharing economy, idle assets such as parked cars and spare bedroom can be rented out when not in use. In this way, physical assets are shared as services.

 

According to the passage, asset owners and potential users can find each after the …. of the Internet and its big data.

 

 

14 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Four

The human digestive system is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. It is also known as the alimentary canal. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment.

 

The digestive system, which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults, is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or small bowel, and the large intestine or colon with the liver, pancreas, gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.

 

The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we can eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion. A ring like muscle as the end esophagus controls the passage of food into the stomach. This ring like muscle also controls the food from going back up into the esophagus. The stomach further liquefies the food and adds digestive acids.

 

From there are stomach contents are slowly released into the small intestine. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place. There are millions of tiny finger like projection lining the small intestine called villi. These villi aid in the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are emptied into the small intestine in order to aid the digestive process.

 

After traveling through the nearly 20 feet of small intestine, unabsorbed material moves into the colon. Here the remaining liquids and salts (electrolytes) are absorbed from digested material. Bacteria further break down the undigested material, which continues to solidity and eventually passes from the body as feces through the rectum and anus during bowel movement.

 

The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses ….

 

15 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Four

The human digestive system is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. It is also known as the alimentary canal. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment.

 

The digestive system, which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults, is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or small bowel, and the large intestine or colon with the liver, pancreas, gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.

 

The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we can eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion. A ring like muscle as the end esophagus controls the passage of food into the stomach. This ring like muscle also controls the food from going back up into the esophagus. The stomach further liquefies the food and adds digestive acids.

 

From there are stomach contents are slowly released into the small intestine. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place. There are millions of tiny finger like projection lining the small intestine called villi. These villi aid in the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are emptied into the small intestine in order to aid the digestive process.

 

After traveling through the nearly 20 feet of small intestine, unabsorbed material moves into the colon. Here the remaining liquids and salts (electrolytes) are absorbed from digested material. Bacteria further break down the undigested material, which continues to solidity and eventually passes from the body as feces through the rectum and anus during bowel movement.

 

What is the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?

 

16 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Passage Four

The human digestive system is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. It is also known as the alimentary canal. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment.

 

The digestive system, which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults, is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or small bowel, and the large intestine or colon with the liver, pancreas, gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.

 

The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we can eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion. A ring like muscle as the end esophagus controls the passage of food into the stomach. This ring like muscle also controls the food from going back up into the esophagus. The stomach further liquefies the food and adds digestive acids.

 

From there are stomach contents are slowly released into the small intestine. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place. There are millions of tiny finger like projection lining the small intestine called villi. These villi aid in the absorption of nutrients. Secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are emptied into the small intestine in order to aid the digestive process.

 

After traveling through the nearly 20 feet of small intestine, unabsorbed material moves into the colon. Here the remaining liquids and salts (electrolytes) are absorbed from digested material. Bacteria further break down the undigested material, which continues to solidity and eventually passes from the body as feces through the rectum and anus during bowel movement.

 

Which of the following is the best summary of the passage?

 

17 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Indigenous plants and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being _ (17)_ herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. _18_ , the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, _19_ the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acuminatum. A number of cultivated species of plants were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the  - 20 - species was the sweet potato, which was cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberryand the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, a small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.

 

. …

 

18 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Indigenous plants and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being _ 17_ herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. _(18)_ , the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, _19_ the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acuminatum. A number of cultivated species of plants were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the  - 20 - species was the sweet potato, which was cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberryand the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, a small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.

 

. …

19 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Indigenous plants and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being _ 17_ herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. _18_ , the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, _(19)_ the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acuminatum. A number of cultivated species of plants were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the  - 20 - species was the sweet potato, which was cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberryand the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, a small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.

 

. …

20 / 20

Category: BAHASA INGGRIS

Indigenous plants and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being _ 17_ herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. _18_ , the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, _19_ the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acuminatum. A number of cultivated species of plants were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the  - (20) - species was the sweet potato, which was cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberryand the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, a small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.

 

. …

 

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